Carole Blackburn

My research focuses on the relationship between Indigenous peoples and settler states. I am particularly interested in how Indigenous nations assert their rights and sovereignty in struggles over land and political recognition, and the consequences for Indigenous people of engaging states in legal and political arenas.

I am currently finishing a book on the negotiation of the Nisga’a treaty. Entitled Uncertain Futures: Aboriginal Rights and Treaty Making in Canada, this book looks at the legal, political and cultural consequences of the treaty made between the Nisga’a First Nation, Canada and British Columbia in 2000. I am particularly interested in if and how treaty making in Canada can be a mechanism of reconciliation. Presently it is not. While the recent report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools identifies the treaty relationship as key to meaningful reconciliation, First Nations treaty signatories have very different ideas about how and why a treaty can reconcile their relationship with the state than do the federal and provincial governments. For Nisga’a, as for most First Nations, treaties are a sacred covenant and should create relationships of mutual respect and obligations between treaty partners. This is only possible, however, when they are fully implemented and their spirit and intent fully complied with.

My second major project, entitled “The Right to be Harmed: Rights, Culture and Injury in Residential School Litigation” is a SSHRC funded study of the litigation that former residential school students brought against Canada and the major Christian Churches who partners with the government to run the residential schools. This litigation led up to and resulted in the recent Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools. This research traces the multiple dimensions of injury that were presented and fought over in the residential school cases. I look in particular at the problematic role of trauma and psychiatric disorders as evidence of harms that are not just physical and emotional but political in nature.

Legal and political anthropology, race and colonization, human rights, indigenous rights and sovereignty, First Nations and the Canadian state, injury, trauma and reconciliation.

Journal Articles

2019 “The Treaty Relationship and Settler Colonialism in Canada” . In Shifting Forms of Continental Colonialism: Unfinished Struggles and Tensions, edited by Dittmar Shorkowitz, Ingo Shroeder and John Chavez. Pp. 415-435. Palgrave MacMillan.

2012 “Culture Loss and Crumbling Skulls: The Problematic of Injury in Residential School Litigation.” Political and Legal Anthropology Review 35(2):288-306.

2009 “Differentiating Indigenous Citizenship: Seeking Multiplicity in Rights, Identity and Sovereignty in Canada.” American Ethnologist 36(1):66-78.

2007 “Producing Legitimacy: Reconciliation and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Rights in Canada.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 13(3):622-638.

2005 “Searching for Guarantees in the Midst of Uncertainty: Negotiating Aboriginal Rights and Title in British Columbia.” American Anthropologist 107(4):586-596.


2000 “Harvest of Souls:” The Jesuit Missions and Colonialism in North America, 1632- 1650. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press.  Shortlisted for the Raymond Klibansky Book Prize, Humanities and Social Sciences Federation of Canada.

Winter 2020

ANTH500 History of Anthropological Thought Sections

Various approaches to anthropology, from classical to contemporary.