I am an archaeologist and my research explores the histories of Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America, primarily that of Tsimshian and Musqueam communities. I think that working collaboratively with Indigenous descent communities creates a fundamental interdisciplinarity between the traditions of western and Indigenous scholarship. My recent work is an explicit evaluation of the links between the science of material history and the literature of Indigenous oral records over the Holocene. This work has demonstrated the remarkable capacity of Indigenous oral records to accurately record millennia of history, something that while obvious to Indigenous communities is less well understood in the non-Indigenous settler-colonial state. These results also cast some light on the vulnerabilities of different knowledge frameworks, including those of science, to ethnocentrism in the description and explanation of history. My work addresses these in both anthropological theory and, increasingly, the interpretation of archaeology in Canadian legal history of Aboriginal rights and titles and in the realm of Indigenous law. I am part of a joint Musqueam-UBC platform for research and teaching partnerships focusing on history and archaeology. I also work with First Nations communities using archaeological methods to locate unmarked cemeteries and graves, including those associated with Indian Residential Schools.
Photo credit: Brian Thom.
I am an anthropological archaeologist whose research and teaching expertise has focused on the Northwest Coast and includes the history and archaeology of complex hunter-gatherers of western North America, the archaeology and ethnohistory of cultural contact and colonialism, archaeology and law, space-syntax analysis of architecture and households, and the use of indigenous oral records in archaeology.
My current work includes a long term partnership with the Lax Kw’alaams and Metlakatla First Nations that explores their history over the Holocene via a comparison of archaeological data and Indigenous oral records.
I also work with Musqueam First Nation in a partnership to offer UBC undergraduate courses that advance the analysis of archaeological research conducted in their territory.
I have an interest in the use of ground penetrating radar to locate human burials, work that I offer primarily as service for Indigenous communities. For information on the application of GPR to cemeteries including IRS contexts, please watch this presentation:
- 2021. Andrew Martindale, Liam Wadsworth, Eric Simons, and Colin Grier. Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground Penetrating Radar. In the symposium (organized by P. Dawson and M Hvidberg), Commemorating Indian Residential Schools through Archaeology and Digital Heritage. 53rd Canadian Archaeological Association Annual Conference (virtual). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qBiZHsrD6g
Please note that our capacity at UBC Anthropology to use GPR emerged from a partnership with Musqueam First Nation; our joint TLEF grant application in 2007 allowed us to acquire the equipment and develop the capacity. We continue to employ this method in partnership with Musqueam.
I am the Director of the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database, which was transferred to UBC LOA from the Canadian Museum of History in 2014: www.canadianarchaeology.ca.
TJ Brown (PhD)
Steven Daniel (PhD)
Jonathan Duelks (MA, PhD)
Eric Simons (PhD)
Malika Hays (MA)
Tatiana Nomokonova (Post-Doc)
Chelsey Armstrong (Post-Doc)
Eric Guiry (PhD, Post Doc)
Chris Arnett (PhD)
Bryn Letham (PhD)
Iain McKechnie (PhD)
Jordan Handley (MA)
Timothy Allan (MA)
Steven Daniel (MA)
Kyla Hynes (MA)
Raini Johnson (MA)
Marina La Salle (MA)
Angela Ruggles (MA)
- 2020 (Lyons, Natasha, Tanja Hoffmann, Debbie Miller, Andrew Martindale, Kenneth M. Ames and Michael Blake). “Were the Ancient Coast Salish Farmers? A Story of Origins.” American Antiquity.
- 2020 (Wadsworth, William TD, Andrew Martindale, Colin Grier, and Kisha Supernant). “The application and evaluation of remote sensing techniques to household archaeology on the Northwest Coast.” IN Studies in Archaeometry, M. Ramírez Galán and R. Sandifer Bard, eds. Oxford: Archaeopress.
- 2020. (Martindale, Andrew and Thomas J. Brown). “Creación de un Archivo Mundial de Datos de Radiocarbono en Arqueología.” IN Metodos Cronométricos en Arqueologíca, Historia y Palentología. Juan A. Barceló and Berta Morell, eds. Madrid: Dextra Editorial
- 2020 (Martindale, Andrew and Chelsey Geralda Armstrong). “The Vulnerability of Archaeological Logic in Aboriginal Rights and Titles Cases in Canada: theoretical and empirical implications.” Collaborative Anthropologies 11(2):55-91.
- 2020. (Letham, Bryn, Andrew Martindale, Kenneth M. Ames). “Endowment, Investment, and the Transforming Coast: Long-Term Human-Environment Interactions and Territorial Proprietorship in the Prince Rupert Harbour, Canada.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 59.
- 2019. (Menzies, Charles R., and Andrew Martindale). “’I Was Surprised’: The UBC School and Hearsay — A Reply to David Henige.” Journal of Northwest Anthropology. 53(1):78-107.
- 2019. (Patton, Katherine A., Andrew Martindale, Trevor J. Orchard, Sage Vanier, and Gary Coupland). “Finding Eulachon: The Use and Cultural Importance of Thaleichthys pacificuson the Northern Northwest Coast of North America.” Journal of Archaeological Science. Reports. 23:687-699.
- 2019. (Martindale, Andrew, George MacDonald, and Sage Vanier). “Bending but Unbroken: The Nine Tribes of the Northern Tsimshian through the Colonial Era.” IN Power, Political Economy, and Historical Landscapes of the Modern World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Chris DeCorse, ed. Binghamton: SUNY Press.
- 2018. (Martindale, Andrew). “The Future of History in Archaeology.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 50(1).
- 2018. (Martindale, Andrew, Sara Shneidernam, and Mark Turin). “Time, Oral Tradition, and Technology.” IN Memory, P. Tortell, M. Young, M. Turin, eds. Vancouver: Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies.
- 2018. (Martindale, Andrew, Gordon T. Cook, Iain McKechnie, Kevan Edinborough, Ian Hutchinson, Morley Eldridge, Kisha Supernant, and Kenneth M. Ames). “Estimates of Marine Reservoir Effects (MRE) in Archaeological Chronologies: Comparing Three ΔR Calculations for Evaluating Marine Influenced Radiocarbon Dates in Prince Rupert Harbour, British Columbia, Canada.” American Antiquity.
- 2018. (Letham, Bryn, Andrew Martindale, Nicholas Waber, Kenneth M. Ames). “Archaeological Survey of Dynamic Coastal Landscapes and Paleoshorelines: Locating Early Holocene Sites in the Prince Rupert Harbour Area, British Columbia, Canada.” Journal of Field Archaeology. 43:3, 181-199, DOI: 10.1080/00934690.2018.1441575
- 2017. (Edinborough, Kevan, Marko Porčić, Andrew Martindale, T. J. Brown, Kisha Supernant, and Kenneth M. Ames). “A Radiocarbon Test for Demographic Events in Written and Oral History.” Proceedings of the National Academuy of Sciences. 114 (47) 12436-12441; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1713012114
- 2017. (Martindale, Andrew, Bryn Letham, Kisha Supernant, TJ Brown, Jonathan Duelks, and Kenneth M. Ames). “Monumentality and Urbanism in Northern Tsimshian Archaeology.” Hunter Gatherer Research. 3.1: 133-163. https://doi.org/10.3828/hgr.2017.8
- 2017. (Letham, Bryn, Andrew Martindale, Kisha Supernant, Thomas J. Brown, Jerry S. Cybulski, Kenneth M. Ames). “Assessing the Scale and Pace of Large Shell-Bearing Site Occupation in the Prince Rupert Harbour Area, British Columbia.” Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology. DOI: 10.1080/15564894.2017.1387621
- 2017. (Martindale, Andrew, Susan Marsden, Katherine Patton, Angela Ruggles, Kisha Supernant, David Archer, Bryn Letham, Duncan McLaren, and Kenneth Ames). “The Role of Small Villages in Northern Tsimshian Territory from Oral and Archaeological Records.” Journal of Social Archaeology. 17(3):285-325.
- 2017 (Jillian Harris, Alex Maass, and Andrew Martindale). “Practicing Rconciliation.” IN Reflections of Canada: Illuminating Our Opportunities and Challenges at 150+ Years. Philippe Tortell, Margot Young, Maxwell Cameron, eds. Vancouver: Peter Wall Institute for Advances Studies.
- 2016. (Letham, Bryn, Andrew Martindale, Rebecca MacDonald, Eric Guiry, Jacob Jones, and Kenneth M. Ames). “Post-Glacial Relative Sea Level History of Prince Rupert Harbour, British Columbia, Canada.” Quaternary Science Reviews. 153C:156-191.
- 2016. (Edinborough, Kevan, Andrew Martindale, Gordon T. Cook, Kisha Supernant, Kenneth M Ames). “A Marine Reservoir Effect ∆R Value for Kitandach, in Prince Rupert Harbour, British Columbia.” Radiocarbon. July 2016:1-7.
- 2016. (Martindale, Andrew, Natasha Lyons, George Nicholas, Bill Angelbeck, Sean P. Connaughton, Colin Grier, James Herbert, Mike Leon, Yvonne Marshall, Angela Piccini, David M. Schaepe, Kisha Supernant, Gary Warrick). “Archaeology as Partnerships in Practice: A Reply to La Salle and Hutchings.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 40(1):191-204.
- 2015. (Martindale, Andrew and Irena Jurakic). “Glass Tools in Archaeology: Material and Technological Change.” Oxford Handbooks Online.
- 2015. (Michelle A. Chaput, Björn Kriesche, Matthew Betts, Andrew Martindale, Rafal Kulik, Volker Schmidt and Konrad Gajewski). “Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Ancient Human Populations in North America.” PNAS.
- 2015. (Letham, Bryn, Andrew Martindale, Duncan McLaren, Thomas Brown, Kenneth M. Ames, David J.W. Archer, and Susan Marsden). “Holocene Settlement History of the Dundas Islands Archipelago, Northern British Columbia.” BC Studies.
- 2014. (Martindale, Andrew and Natasha Lyons). Guest Editors of “Community-Oriented Archaeology” a special section of the Canadian Journal of Archaeology Volume 38(2).
- 2014 (Martindale, Andrew and Natasha Lyons). “Introduction: Community-Oriented Archaeology.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 38(2):425-433.
- 2014. (Martindale, Andrew and George Nicholas). “Archaeology as Federated Knowledge.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 38(2):434-465.
- 2014. (Ames, Kenneth M. and Andrew Martindale). “Rope Bridges and Cables: A Synthesis of Prince Rupert Harbour Archaeology.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 38(1):140-178.
- 2014. (Martindale, Andrew). “Archaeology Taken to Court: Unraveling the Epistemology of Cultural Tradition in the Context of Aboriginal Title Cases” In From the Margins: The Archaeology of the Colonized and its Contribution to Global Archaeological Theory. Neal Ferris and Rodney Harrison, eds. pp. 397-422. Oxford University Press.
- 2013. (Martindale, Andrew). “Thresholds of Meaning: Voice, Time, and Epistemology in the Archaeological Consideration of NW Coast Art.” IN The Construction of Northwest Coast Art: An Anthology. Ki-ke-in (Ron Hamilton), Jennifer Kramer, and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, eds. UBC Press.
- 2013. (Pitcher, Tony, Mimi Lam, Cameron Ainsworth, Andrew Martindale, Katrina Nakamura,Ian Perry, and Trevor Ward). “Improvements to the ‘Rapfish’ rapid evaluation technique for fisheries: integrating ecological and human dimensions.” Journal of Fish Biology. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12122
- 2013. (Burchell, Meghan, Hallmand, Nadine, Andrew Martindale, Aubrey Cannon and Bernd R. Schöne.). “Seasonality and Intensity of Shellfish Harvesting on the North Coast of British Columbia.” Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology. 8:152-169.
- 2013. (Hallmand, Nadine, Meghan Burchell, Natalie Brewster, Andrew Martindale, and Bernd R. Schöne). “Holocene climate and seasonality of shell collection at the Dundas Islands Group, northern British Columbia, Canada-A bivalve sclerochronological approach.” Paleo 3. 373:163-72. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.12.019
- 2011. (Martindale, Andrew and Bryn Letham).“Causalities and Models within the Archaeological Construction of Political Order on the Northwest Coast of North America.” IN The Archaeology of Politics: the Materiality of Political Practice and Action in the Past. Peter G. Johansen and Andrew M. Bauer, eds. pp. 323-353. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.
- 2011. (Brewster, Natalie and Andrew Martindale). “Faunal and Settlement Patterns on the Dundas Islands.” IN The Archaeology of North Pacific Fisheries. Madonna Moss and Aubrey Cannon, eds. pp 247-264. University of Alaska Press.
- 2011. (McLaren, Duncan, Andrew Martindale, Daryl Fedje, and Quentin Mackie). “Relict Shorelines and Shell Middens of the Dundas Island Archipelago.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 35:86-116.
- 2009. (Martindale, Andrew, Bryn Letham, Duncan McLaren, David Archer, Meghan Burchell, Bernd R. Schone). “Mapping of Subsurface Shell Midden Components through Percussion Coring: Examples from the Dundas Islands.” Journal of Archaeological Science. 36:1565-1575.
- 2009. (Martindale, Andrew and Kisha Supernant) “Quantifying the Defensiveness of Defended Sites on the Northwest Coast of North America.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 28(2):191-204.
- 2009. (Martindale, Andrew). “Entanglement and Tinkering: Structural History in the Archaeology of the Northern Tsimshian.” Journal of Social Archaeology. 9(1):59-92.
- 2006. (Martindale, Andrew). “Methodological Issues in the Use of Tsimshian Oral Traditions (Adawx) in Archaeology.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 30(2)159-193.
- 2006. (Martindale, Andrew). “Tsimshian Houses and Households through the Contact Period.” IN Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast. E. Sobel, A. Trieu Gahr, K. M. Ames, ed. pp.140-158. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.
- 2006. (Martindale, Andrew and Irena Jurakic).” Identifying Expedient Glass Tools in a Post-Contact Tsimshian Village.” Journal of Archaeological Science. 33(3):414-427.
- 2005. (Martindale, Andrew). “A Method for Analyzing Vernacular Architecture: A Case Study from the Ramaditas Site,” Chile. IN Arqueologia del Desierto de Atacama: La Etapa Formativa en el Area de Ramaditas/Guatacondo. M. Rivera ed. pp.133-173. Editorial Universidad Bolivariana Coleccion Estudios Regionales y Locales: Santiago.
- 2004. (Martindale, Andrew and Irena Jurakic) “Northern Tsimshian Plant Resource Use in the Late Pre-contact to Post-contact Era.” Canadian Journal of Archaeology. 28(2):254-280.
- 2003. (Martindale, Andrew). “A Hunter-gatherer Paramount Chiefdom: Tsimshian Developments through the Contact Period.” IN Emerging from the Mist: Studies in Northwest Coast Culture History. R.G. Matson, G. Coupland and Q. Mackie ed. pp.12-50. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. PDF
- 2003. (Martindale, Andrew, and Susan Marsden). “Defining the Middle Period (3500 BP to 1500 BP) in Tsimshian History through a Comparison of Archaeological and Oral Records.” BC Studies. 138:13-50.
- 2001. (Coupland, Gary, Andrew Martindale and Susan Marsden). “Does Resource Abundance Explain Local Group Rank Among the Coast Tsimshian?” IN Perspectives in Northern Northwest Coast Prehistory, Mercury Series Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 160. J. Cybulksi ed. pp.221-248. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada.
- 2001. (Martindale, Andrew). “Late Traditions on the Northwest Coast.” Encyclopedia of Prehistory. P. Peregrine ed. Plenum Press.
- 2000. (Martindale, Andrew). “Archaeological Stories of the Tsimshian: Change in the context of contact.” In The Entangled Past. M. Boyd, J.C. Erwin, and M. Hendrickson, ed. pp.90-97. Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary.
- 1999. (Martindale, Andrew). “Maritime Adaptations on the Northwest Coast.” Revista de Arqueologia Americana. 10:1-42.
- 1996. (Graffam, Gray and Andrew Martindale). “The Archaeology of Spatial Order: An Examination of the Guatacondo Valley, Northern Chile.” Journal of the Julian Steward Anthropology Society: Current Research in Andean Antiquity. 23(1&2):229-267.
Not Peer Reviewed
- 2017. (Martindale, Andrew). “The Importance of Archaeology in Vancouver and Beyond. SAA Archaeological Record. 17(1):7-8.
- 2017. (Martindale, Andrew). “A Galaxy Not So Far Away.” Globe and Mail. January 3, 2017:L6.
- 2016. (Martindale, Andrew). “Journey through the Landscapes of Vancouver.” SAA Archaeological Record. 16(5):7-8.
- 2016. (Martindale, Andrew and Mark Guerin). “Welcome to Vancouver: A Place of Contestation about the Past.” SAA Archaeological Record. 16(4):12-13.
- 2020. (Martindale, Andrew). Exploring the Nine Tribes-Nisga’a Territorial Dispute with Reference to Tsimshianic Legal Principles from Published and Archival Sources. Volume 2. Report submitted to the Ministry of Justice, British Columbia.
- 2019A. (Martindale, Andrew). Exploring the Nine Tribes-Nisga’a Territorial Dispute with Reference to Tsimshianic Legal Principles from Published and Archival Sources. Volume 1. Report submitted to the Ministry of Justice, British Columbia.
- 2019B. (Martindale, Andrew). Exploring the Nine Tribes-Nisga’a Territorial Dispute with Reference to Tsimshianic Legal Principles from Published and Archival Sources. Volume 1 Addendum. Report submitted to the Ministry of Justice, British Columbia.
- 2015a (Martindale, Andrew). A Summary and Analysis of Specific Errors in Lovesik’s (2007) Expert Witness Report Prepared for The British Columbia Department of Justice and Submitted as Evidence in R. v Lax Kw’alaams. Unpublished report.
- 2011 (Martindale, Andrew and Susan Marsden). Analysis of territorial claims made in “Lax Kw’alaams: Review of Historical and Ethnographic Sources” and “Metlakatla: Review of Historical and Ethnographic Sources” documents prepared by the Aboriginal Research Division of the British Columbia Ministry of Attorney General Legal Services Branch. Report prepared for the Lax Kw’alaams and Metlakatla Indian Bands.
- 2021. SSHRC Partnership Development Grant. Andrew Martindale (UBCV), Stephanie Huddlestan (Metlakatla), Aviva Rathbone (Musqueam), Neha Gupta (UBCO), Morgan Ritchie (Sts’ailes, UBCV), Camilla Speller (UBCV), Dominique Weis (UBCV), Alison Wylie (UBCV), Kisha Supernant (Alberta), Eric Guiry (Leicester), Rhy McMillan (UBCV), Natalie Kermoal (Rupertsland Center).
- 2019. UBC VPRI Research Facility Support Grant. (Andrew Martindale, Patricia Ormerod, David Pokotylo, Darlene Weston, Michael Blake, Camilla Speller, Zichun Jing, Sue Rowley).
- 2018. UBC VPRI Research Facility Support Grant (Andrew Martindale, Patricia Ormerod, David Pokotylo, Darlene Weston, Michael Blake, Camilla Speller, Zichun Jing, Sue Rowley).
- 2018. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Andrew Martindale, Ken Ames, Kisha Supernant, Bryn Letham, Eric Guiry, Susan Marsden).
- 2018. UBC VPRI Research Excellence Cluster Award (Andrew Martindale, Dominique Weis, Alison Wylie, Jessica Metcalfe, Ray McMillan, Eric Simons)
- 2013. UBC Dean’s Innovation Fund (Andrew Martindale, Sue Rowley, Leona Sparrow).
- 2012-2015. National Science Foundation (Ken Ames, Andrew Martindale, Kevan Edinborough).
- 2012. Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Scholarship Early Career Scholar and Faculty Associate.
- 2011-2014. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Andrew Martindale, Ken Ames, Aubrey Cannon, Susan Marsden, David Archer).
- 2010. UBC Martha Piper Fund (Tony Pitcher, Mimi Lam, Andrew Martindale, Ronald Trosper, Rashid Sumaila).
- 2010-2013. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Charles Menzies, Caroline Butler, Andrew Martindale, Michael Richards).
- 2008. UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (Andrew Martindale, Sue Rowley, Leona Sparrow, Hector Williams, Steve Daniel).
- 2007. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Andrew Martindale).
- 2006-2009. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Charles Menzies, Caroline Butler, Felice Wyndham, Andrew Martindale).
- 2006-2008. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Darren Gröcke, Aubrey Cannon, Andrew Martindale).
- 2005-2008. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Andrew Martindale).
- 2003. McMaster Learning and Technology Resource Centre (Andrew Martindale).
- 2000-2003. Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Andrew Martindale).
- 1997. British Columbia Heritage Trust (Andrew Martindale).
Director, Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD)
Northwest Coast archaeology and history; vernacular architecture and engineering; radiocarbon dating and calibration; landscape and settlement analyses; Indigenous oral records; colonialism and culture contact; archaeology and law.